## 1. Introduction

The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is the maximum pressure at which a flange may be operated at given temperature and is normally expressed in terms of the flange rating. In the case of ASME B16.5 flanges, as the temperature increases, whilst the class remains the same (i.e. 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500# and 2500#), the maximum pressure at which the flange can be used decreases. The amount by which the pressure decreases with temperature is a function of the material properties.

The pressure-temperature ratings contained in ASME B16.5 have been established based on the procedures described in Nonmandatory Appendix ‘A’ of ASME B16.5. Whilst the primary consideration when establishing these pressure-temperature ratings was the ability of the flange to sustain pressure and other loads, there are other considerations that may affect or limit the pressure-temperature rating. One such consideration is the ceiling pressure, pc, which effectively sets a limit on the MAWP regardless of the material properties.

The ceiling pressure values are listed in Table 1. They are normally only applicable in the case of high-strength materials and are imposed in order to limit deflection in the flange. ASME B16.5 does not permit pressure-temperature ratings in excess of the values shown in Table 1.

Temperature | Class | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

150# | 300# | 400# | 600# | 900# | 1500# | 2500# | |

–29 to 38°C | 20.0 | 51.7 | 68.9 | 103.4 | 155.1 | 258.6 | 430.9 |

50°C | 19.5 | 51.7 | 68.9 | 103.4 | 155.1 | 258.6 | 430.9 |

100°C | 17.7 | 51.5 | 68.7 | 103.0 | 154.6 | 257.6 | 429.4 |

150°C | 15.8 | 50.3 | 66.8 | 100.3 | 150.6 | 250.8 | 418.2 |

200°C | 13.8 | 48.6 | 64.8 | 97.2 | 145.8 | 243.4 | 405.4 |

250°C | 12.1 | 46.3 | 61.7 | 92.7 | 139.0 | 231.8 | 386.2 |

300°C | 10.2 | 42.9 | 57.0 | 85.7 | 128.6 | 214.4 | 357.1 |

325°C | 9.3 | 41.4 | 55.0 | 82.6 | 124.0 | 206.6 | 344.3 |

350°C | 8.4 | 40.3 | 53.6 | 80.4 | 120.7 | 201.1 | 335.3 |

375°C | 7.4 | 38.9 | 51.6 | 77.6 | 116.5 | 194.1 | 323.2 |

400°C | 6.5 | 36.5 | 48.9 | 73.3 | 109.8 | 183.1 | 304.9 |

425°C | 5.5 | 35.2 | 46.5 | 70.0 | 105.1 | 175.1 | 291.6 |

450°C | 4.6 | 33.7 | 45.1 | 67.7 | 101.4 | 169.0 | 281.8 |

475°C | 3.7 | 31.7 | 42.3 | 63.4 | 95.1 | 158.2 | 263.9 |

500°C | 2.8 | 28.2 | 37.6 | 56.5 | 84.7 | 140.9 | 235.0 |

Table 1 – Rating Ceiling Pressure – p

_{c}, bar

## 2. Material Properties

The procedures for establishing the pressure-temperature ratings of a flange use an allowable stress value which is derived from the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength values listed in Section II, Part D of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Materials that are not listed in Section II, Part D of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code may be used provided that they conform to a published specification covering chemistry, physical and mechanical properties, method and process of manufacture, heat treatment, and quality control (See Section II, Part D, Appendix 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code).

For convenience, ASME B16.5 groups materials as indicated in Table 2 based on identical or closely matching allowable stress and yield strength values.

Material Group | Nominal Designation | Pressure Temperature Rating Table | Applicable ASTM Specifications | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Forgings | Castings | Plates | |||

1.1 | C-Si | 2-1.1 | A 105 | A 216 Gr. WCB | A 515 Gr. 70 |

C-Mn-Si | 2-1.1 | A 350 Gr. LF2 | … | A 516 Gr. 70 | |

C-Mn-Si | 2-1.1 | … | … | A 537 Cl. 1 | |

C-Mn-Si-V | 2-1.1 | A 350 Gr. LF6 CI. 1 | … | … | |

3½Ni | 2-1.1 | A 350 Gr. LF3 | … | … | |

1.2 | C-Mn-S | 2-1.2 | … | A 216 Gr. WCC | … |

C-Mn-Si | 2-1.2 | … | A 352 Gr. LCC | … | |

C-Mn-Si-V | 2-1.2 | A 350 Gr. LF6 Cl. 2 | … | … | |

2½Ni | 2-1.2 | … | A 352 Gr. LC2 | A 203 Gr. B | |

3½Ni | 2-1.2 | … | A 352 Gr. LC3 | A 203 Gr. E | |

1.3 | C-Si | 2-1.3 | … | A 352 Gr. LCB | A 515 Gr. 65 |

C-Mn-Si | 2-1.3 | … | … | A 516 Gr. 65 | |

2½Ni | 2-1.3 | … | … | A 203 Gr. A | |

3½Ni | 2-1.3 | … | … | A 203 Gr. D | |

C-½Mo | 2-1.3 | … | A 217 Gr. WC1 | … | |

C-½Mo | 2-1.3 | … | A 352 Gr. LC1 | … | |

1.4 | C-Si | 2-1.4 | … | … | A 515 Gr. 60 |

C-Mn-Si | 2-1.4 | A 350 Gr. LF1 Cl. 1 | … | A 516 Gr. 60 | |

1.5 | C-½Mo | 2-1.5 | A 182 Gr. F1 | … | A 204 Gr. A |

C-½Mo | 2-1.5 | … | … | A 204 Gr. B | |

1.7 | ½Cr-½Mo | 2-1.7 | A 182 Gr. F2 | … | … |

Ni-½Cr-½Mo | 2-1.7 | … | A 217 Gr. WC4 | … | |

¾Ni-¾Cr-1Mo | 2-1.7 | … | A 217 Gr. WC5 | … | |

1.9 | 1¼Cr-½Mo | 2-1.9 | … | A 217 Gr. WC6 | … |

1¼Cr-½Mo-Si | 2-1.9 | A 182 Gr. F11 CL.2 | … | A 387 Gr. 11 Cl. 2 | |

1.1 | 2¼Cr-1Mo | 2-1.10 | A 182 Gr. F22 Cl. 3 | A 217 Gr. WC9 | A 387 Gr. 22 Cl. 2 |

1.11 | C-½Mo | 2-1.11 | … | … | A 204 Gr. C |

1.13 | 5Cr-½Mo | 2-1.13 | A 182 Gr. F5a | A 217 Gr. C5 | … |

1.14 | 9Cr-1Mo | 2-1.14 | A 182 Gr. F9 | A 217 Gr. C12 | … |

1.15 | 9Cr-1Mo-V | 2-1.15 | A 182 Gr. F91 | A 217 Gr. C12A | A 387 Gr. 91 Cl. 2 |

1.17 | 1Cr-½Mo | 2-1.17 | A 182 Gr. F12 Cl. 2 | … | … |

5Cr-½Mo | 2-1.17 | A 182 Gr. F5 | … | … | |

1.18 | 9Cr-2W-V | 2-1.18 | A 182 Gr. F92 | … | … |

2.1 | 18Cr-8Ni | 2-2.1 | A 182 Gr. F304 | A 351 Gr. CF3 | A 240 Gr. 304 |

18Cr-8Ni | 2-2.1 | A 182 Gr. F304H | A 351 Gr. CF8 | A 240 Gr. 304H | |

2.2 | 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo | 2-2.2 | A 182 Gr. F316 | A 351 Gr. CF3M | A 240 Gr. 316 |

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo | 2-2.2 | A 182 Gr. F316H | A 351 Gr. CF8M | A 240 Gr. 316H | |

18Cr-13Ni-3Mo | 2-2.2 | A 182 Gr. F317 | … | A 240 Gr. 317 | |

19Cr-10Ni-3Mo | 2-2.2 | … | A 351 Gr. CG8M | … | |

2.3 | 18Cr-8Ni | 2-2.3 | A 182 Gr. F304L | … | A 240 Gr. 304L |

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo | 2-2.3 | A 182 Gr. F316L | … | A 240 Gr. 316L | |

18Cr-13Ni-3Mo | 2-2.3 | A 182 Gr. F317L | … | … | |

2.4 | 18Cr-10Ni-Ti | 2-2.4 | A 182 Gr. F321 | … | A 240 Gr. 321 |

18Cr-10Ni-Ti | 2-2.4 | A 182 Gr. F321H | … | A 240 Gr. 321H | |

2.5 | 18Cr-10Ni-Cb | 2-2.5 | A 182 Gr. F347 | … | A 240 Gr. 347 |

18Cr-10Ni-Cb | 2-2.5 | A 182 Gr. F347H | … | A 240 Gr. 347H | |

18Cr-10Ni-Cb | 2-2.5 | A 182 Gr. F348 | … | A 240 Gr. 348 | |

18Cr-10Ni-Cb | 2-2.5 | A 182 Gr. F348H | … | A 240 Gr. 348H | |

2.6 | 23Cr-12Ni | 2-2.6 | … | … | A 240 Gr. 309H |

2.7 | 25Cr-20Ni | 2-2.7 | A 182 Gr. F310 | … | A 240 Gr. 310H |

2.8 | 20Cr-18Ni-6Mo | 2-2.8 | A 182 Gr. F44 | A 351 Gr. CK3MCuN | A 240 Gr. S31254 |

22Cr-5Ni-3Mo-N | 2-2.8 | A 182 Gr. F51 | … | A 240 Gr. S31803 | |

25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N | 2-2.8 | A 182 Gr. F53 | … | A 240 Gr. S32750 | |

24Cr-10Ni-4Mo-V | 2-2.8 | … | A 351 Gr. CE8MN | … | |

25Cr-5Ni-2Mo-3Cu | 2-2.8 | … | A 995 Gr. CD4MCu | … | |

25Cr-7Ni-3.5Mo-W-Cb | 2-2.8 | … | A 995 Gr. CD3MWCuN | … | |

25Cr-7.5Ni-3.5Mo-N-Cu-W | 2-2.8 | A 182 Gr. F55 | … | A 240 Gr. S32760 | |

2.9 | 23Cr-12Ni | 2-2.9 | … | … | A 240 Gr. 309S |

25Cr-12Ni | 2-2.9 | … | … | A 240 Gr. 310S | |

2.1 | 25Cr-12Ni | 2-2.10 | … | A 351 Gr. CH8 | … |

25Cr-12Ni | 2-2.10 | … | A 351 Gr. CH20 | … | |

2.11 | 18Cr-10Ni-Cb | 2-2.11 | … | A 351 Gr. CF8C | … |

2.12 | 25Cr-20Ni | 2-2.12 | … | A 351 Gr. CK20 | … |

3.1 | 35Ni-35Fe-20Cr-Cb | 2-3.1 | B 462 Gr. N08020 | … | B 463 Gr. N08020 |

3.2 | 99.0Ni | 2-3.2 | B 564 Gr. N02200 | … | B 162 Gr. N02200 |

3.3 | 99.0Ni-Low C | 2-3.3 | … | … | B 162 Gr. N02201 |

3.4 | 67Ni-30Cu | 2-3.4 | B 564 Gr. N04400 | … | 127 Gr. N04400 |

3.5 | 72Ni-15Cr-8Fe | 2-3.5 | B 564 Gr. N06600 | … | 168 Gr. N06600 |

3.6 | 33Ni-42Fe-21Cr | 2-3.6 | B 564 Gr. N08800 | … | 409 Gr. N08800 |

3.7 | 65Ni-28Mo-2Fe | 2-3.7 | B 462 Gr. N10665 | … | 333 Gr. N10665 |

Mn-W | 2-3.7 | B 462 Gr. N10675 | … | 333 Gr. N10675 | |

3.8 | 54Ni-16Mo-15Cr | 2-3.8 | B 462 Gr. N10276 | … | 575 Gr. N10276 |

60Ni-22Cr-9Mo-3.5Cb | 2-3.8 | B 564 Gr. N06625 | … | 443 Gr. N06625 | |

62Ni-28Mo-5Fe | 2-3.8 | … | … | 333 Gr. N10001 | |

70Ni-16Mo-7Cr-5Fe | 2-3.8 | … | … | 434 Gr. N10003 | |

61Ni-16Mo-16Cr | 2-3.8 | … | … | 575 Gr. N06455 | |

42Ni-21.5Cr-3Mo-2.3Cu | 2-3.8 | B 564 Gr. N08825 | … | 424 Gr. N08825 | |

55Ni-21Cr-13.5Mo | 2-3.8 | B 462 Gr. N06022 | … | 575 Gr. N06022 | |

55Ni-23Cr-16Mo-1.6Cu | 2-3.8 | B 462 Gr. N06200 | … | 575 Gr. N06200 | |

3.9 | 47Ni-22Cr-9Mo-I8Fe | 2-3.9 | … | … | 435 Gr. N06002 |

21Ni-30Fe-22Cr-18Co-3Mo-3W | 2-3.9 | B 572 Gr. R30556 | … | 435 Gr. R30556 | |

3.1 | 25Ni-47Fe-21Cr-5Mo | 2-3.10 | … | … | 599 Gr. N08700 |

3.11 | 44Fe-25Ni-21Cr-Mo | 2-3.11 | A 479 Gr. N08904 | … | A 240 Gr. N08904 |

3.12 | 26Ni-43Fe-22Cr-5Mo | 2-3.12 | … | … | B 620 Gr. N08320 |

47Ni-22Cr-20Fe-7Mo | 2-3.12 | … | … | B 582 Gr. N06985 | |

46Fe-24Ni-21Cr-6Mo-Cu-N | 2-3.12 | B 462 Gr. N08367 | A 351 Gr. CN3MN | B 688 Gr. N08367 | |

3.13 | 49Ni-25Cr-18Fe-6Mo | 2-3.13 | … | … | B 582 Gr. N06975 |

Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low C | 2-3.13 | B 564 Gr. N08031 | … | B 625 Gr. N08031 | |

3.14 | 47Ni-22Cr-19Fe-6Mo | 2-3.14 | … | … | B 582 Gr. N06007 |

40Ni-29Cr-15Fe-5Mo | 2-3.14 | B 462 Gr. N06030 | … | B 582 Gr. N06030 | |

58Ni-33Cr-8Mo | 2-3.14 | B 462 Gr. N06035 | … | B 575 Gr. N06035 | |

3.15 | 42Ni-42Fe-21Cr | 2-3.15 | B 564 Gr. N08810 | … | B 409 Gr. N08810 |

3.16 | 35Ni-19Cr-1¼Si | 2-3.16 | B 511 Gr. N08330 | … | B 536 Gr. N08330 |

3.17 | 29Ni-20.5Cr-3.5Cu-2.5Mo | 2-3.17 | … | A 351 Gr. CN7M | … |

3.19 | 57Ni-22CR-14W-2Mo-La | 2-3.19 | B 564 Gr. N06230 | … | B 435 Gr. N06230 |

Table 2 – List of Material Specifications

## 3. Pressure Temperature Rating Method

**3.1. Rating Equation Class 300# and Higher**

For flanges in for Class 300# and above, the pressure-temperature ratings for the materials listed in Table 2 were established using the equation

Where,

C1 = 10 when S_{1} is expressed in MPa and the resultant value of p_{t} will be expressed in bar;

p_{c} = ceiling pressure in bar at the material temperature, T, see Table 1;

P_{r} = pressure rating class index, e.g. for Class 300#, P_{r} = 300;

p_{t} = rated working pressure in bar for the specified material at the material temperature, T;

S_{1} = selected stress in MPa for the specified material at the material temperature, T. The method for establishing S_{1} is described in Paragraphs 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, as applicable.

**3.2. Ratings for Group № 1 Materials**

The selected stress for Group № 1 materials in Table 2 is determined as follows:

a) At temperatures below the creep range, S1 shall be equal to or less than

- 60% of the specified minimum yield strength at 38°C.
- 60% of the yield strength at temperature, T.
- 1.25 times 25% of the ultimate tensile strength value at temperature, T, as listed in Section II, Part D of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for either Section I or Section VIII, Division 1.

b) At temperatures in the creep range, the value of S_{1} shall be the allowable stress at temperature, T, as listed in Section II, Part D of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, for either Section I or Section VIII, Division 1, but not exceeding 60% of the listed yield strength at temperature.

c) In no case shall the selected stress value increase with increasing temperature.

d) The creep range is considered to be at temperatures in excess of 370°C for Group № 1 materials.

e) When the allowable stresses listed for the reference ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section show a higher and lower value for allowable stress and the higher value is noted to the effect that these stress values exceed two-thirds of the yield strength at temperature then the lower value shall be used. If lower allowable stress values do not appear and it is noted in the allowable stress table that the allowable stress values exceed two-thirds of the yield strength at temperature, then the allowable stress values used shall be determined as two thirds of the tabulated yield strength at temperature.

f) Yield strength shall be as listed in Section II, Part D of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, for either Section III or Section VIII, Division 2.

g) Allowable stress values listed in Section II, Part D of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, for Section III, Class 2 or Class 3 values may only be used for a material not listed for either Section I or Section VIII, Division 1.

**3.3. Method for Group № 2 and № 3 Materials**

Pressure-temperature ratings for Class 300# and higher, of materials corresponding to those in Group № 2 and № 3 of Table 2, are established using the method described in Paragraphs 3.1 and 3.2, except that in Paragraphs 3.2(a)(1) and 3.2(a)(2), the 60% factor shall be changed to 70%. For Group № 2 materials, the creep range is considered to be at temperatures in excess of 510°C unless the material properties indicate a lower temperature should be used. For Group № 3 materials, the creep range onset temperature shall be determined on an individual basis.

**3.4. Method for Class 150# – All Materials**

Pressure-temperature ratings for Class 150# rating designation are established by the method given for the related materials in Paragraphs 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 subject to the following exceptions:

a) The value used for the pressure class rating index, P_{r}, in above equation shall be 115.

b) The value used for the selected stress, S_{1}, at the material temperature, T, shall be in accordance with the requirements of either Paragraph 3.1 or 3.2, as applicable.

c) The value used for the rated working pressure, p_{t}, shall not exceed value at temperature T as given by the following equation.

Where,

C_{2} = 21.41;

C_{3} = 0.03724 with T expressed in °C, the resultant p_{t} will be in bar;

T = material temperature, °C.

The value of T in the above equation shall not exceed 538°C. For values of T less than 38°C, use T equal to 38°C.

## 4. Discussion

When establishing the pressure-temperature ratings for a particular piping class, the engineer must first determine the appropriate pressure class rating, i.e. 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500# and 2500#. In this respect, it is not enough for the engineer to simply consider the design pressure. As noted in the introduction, there are other loads that need to be considered, namely applied bending moments, ME, and axial forces, F_{A}, which can be significant The engineer will normally factor in the effects of these loads by converting them to an equivalent pressure, P_{eq}. This is done using the following equation; commonly referred to as the Kellogg formula.

Where, G is the diameter of the gasket load reaction, which is normally assumed to be the mean diameter of the gasket contact face/ring groove. Having calculated P_{eq}, the engineer will add this to the design pressure and, as a rule of thumb, provided the sum is not more than one and a half times the MAWP, the engineer will assume that the selected pressure class rating is suitable. If the sum is more than one and a half times the MAWP, the engineer needs to select the next pressure class rating up and check that.

For more critical applications, the above rule of thumb may provide sufficient assurance as to the adequacy of the flange. Where this is the case, the engineer needs to carry out design calculations for each flange size under consideration.

Rules exist that allow the engineer to determine the stresses not only in the flange, but also in the bolting. In some cases, it is the bolt stresses that determine the pressure class rating rather than the flange stresses, i.e. if the required bolt stresses are excessive or close to the limit, the engineer may decide to select the next pressure class rating up. The loads on the flange/bolting due to internal pressure may increase slightly (due to the larger value of G), but the reduction P_{eq} (for the same reason) combined with the increase in the total bolt cross-sectional area (which increases with increasing pressure class rating), will more than compensate for this.

How the rules for calculating the stresses in a bolted flange connection are applied will be the subject of a separate blog.